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   July 2014  

In this edition -

  • Hubei: Graduates from Secondary Vocational Schools to sit "Knowledge + Skills" entrance examination for Higher Education courses / 湖北:明年中职毕业生实施“知识+技能”招考

  • What have been the benefits of China’s¥1.23 trillion government investment in Vocational Education? China’s Finance Department responds… / 国家1.23万亿为职业教育带来哪些变化?——教育部财务司负责人答记者问

  • Annual Report on the employment rate of Vocational College graduates /年度报告:高职生毕业半年后就业率达九成

  • Jinan province pilots "3+4" model to train Junior High School students to become early childhood teachers / 济南试点“3+4”幼师培养 培养初中起点本科幼师


Hubei: Graduates from Secondary Vocational Schools to sit "Knowledge + Skills" entrance examination for Higher Education courses

湖北:明年中职毕业生实施“知识+技能”招考

Recently, the Hubei Education Examination Authority released the Hubei College Skills Entrance Examination criteria for enrolling secondary vocational school graduates in higher education programs in 2015. The new exam is based on a combination of both knowledge and skills testing.

The entrance exam will be used to enroll secondary vocational graduates in 9 course areas including machinery, electronics and IT. Seventy percent (70%) of the exam will be skills based and the remaining thirty percent (30%) knowledge-based.                           

日前,湖北省教育考试院公布2015年湖北高校招收中职毕业生技能高考考试大纲,正式取消原有的“高职统考”,将实施“知识+技能”的招生考试制度。

据湖北省教育厅有关文件,从2015年起,该省高校招收中职毕业生将全面实行“知识+技能”,在机械类、电子类、计算机类等9个专业(类别),开展以技能操作考试为主、以文化考试为辅的统一招生考试。总分为700分,其中技能考试490分,占70%;文化综合考试210分,占30%。技能考试分为应知(专业知识)和应会(技能操作),分别采用电脑机考和实际操作测试;文化综合考试科目包括语文、数学和英语,其中语文和数学各90分,英语30分。

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What have been the benefits of China’s¥1.23 trillion government investment in Vocational Education? China’s Finance Department responds…

国家1.23万亿为职业教育带来哪些变化?——教育部财务司负责人答记者问

A preliminary report, released by the Ministry of Education on June 30, 2014 shows that from 2005 to 2013, government expenditure on vocational education has totaled ¥1.23 trillion. This raised a number of questions which the Ministry of Finance responded to. A representative from the Ministry of Finance made the following comments in a recent interview:

Q: At present, what are the challenges/ problems regarding the funding of vocational education in China?

A: Challenges include:

-          On a per student basis, the amount of public funding allocated to vocational colleges is only half that allocated to universities.

-          All of the educational indicators for vocational colleges are lower than that of universities.

-          The funding provided to vocational colleges is allocated primarily to teachers’ salaries and building maintenance, instead of to new, updated equipment.

-          The sector is very much reliant on Government funding and needs to find alternate funding/ revenue sources if its development is to continue.

Q: In order to maintain funding for vocational education, what measures will be taken?

A: According to the State Council’s Decisions to accelerate the Development of China’s Vocational Education system and the corresponding Construction Plan 2014 - 2020, the following measures will be taken to ensure funding is maintained:

The Government will:

  • encourage Provincial governments to increase expenditure in vocational education on a per student basis
  • implement a quality improvement program which targets less developed regions. Focus areas will be teaching resources and teacher quality
  • increase subsidies for students studying in national priority areas including agriculture, forestry, water, oil and nuclear technology, as well as for students from low SES and disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • strengthen funding rules and regulations to promote timely and accurate allocation of funding, better record keeping and greater transparency of funding distribution.

教育部6月30日公布的一项初步统计显示,2005年至2013年,职业教育国家财政性经费达1.23万亿元。近年来,国家对职业教育的强力投入主要用在哪些方面,还存在哪些困难和问题?未来职业教育的投入又会有什么变化?教育部财务司有关负责人就此回答了记者提问。

记者:目前我国职业教育经费投入还存在哪些困难和问题?

答:相对而言,职业教育仍是各类教育中的“短板”,与其培养规模和应有地位、作用不匹配。职业教育国家财政性教育经费投入与同阶段普通教育相比仍明显偏低。生均总经费和生均公共财政预算教育经费中,中职与普通高中大体相当,高职仅为普通本科的一半。职业教育经费来源渠道仍较单一,主要呈现“两元”主体结构,一是财政投入,二是学费收入,财政性经费所占比例达到74%,多渠道筹资能力不强。财政性教育经费主要用于教师工资和校舍建设等方面,专用设备经费总体不足,尤其是高职各项办学指标都低于普通本科院校。东中西部地区间经费投入差异还很大,中西部地区生均公共财政预算经费偏低,生均校舍面积等指标大部分未达标,甚至呈现出了严重的“中部塌陷”现象。截至2014年5月,全国有15个省份出台了中等职业教育生均拨款标准,20个省份出台了高等职业教育生均拨款标准,部分地区的职业教育经费投入还未建立制度保障体系。

记者:为保持财政对职业教育投入强度,将采取哪些保障措施?

答:根据《国务院关于加快发展现代职业教育的决定》和《现代职业教育体系建设规划(2014~2020)》要求,主要考虑采取以下四个方面的措施:

第一,进一步推动各地建立并完善职业教育生均拨款制度。《职业教育法》、教育规划纲要等有关法律法规都明确要求省级政府制定和实施职业院校生均经费政策,教育部、财政部在近年印发的文件中再三要求各地建立职业院校生均拨款制度。近期出台的《现代职业教育体系建设规划(2014~2020年)》明确要求,2015年底前,各地依法出台职业院校生均经费标准或公用经费标准。

第二,精心实施好现代职业教育质量提升计划。中央财政从2014年起实施“现代职业教育质量提升计划”,推动各地建立完善以促进改革和提高绩效为导向的高等职业院校生均拨款制度;重点支持中等职业学校改善基本办学条件,开发优质教学资源,提高教师素质;推动建立发达地区和欠发达地区中等职业教育合作办学工作机制。

第三,进一步完善资助政策体系。加大对“农林水地矿油核”等专业学生的助学力度。有计划地支持集中连片特殊困难地区内限制开发和禁止开发区初中毕业生到省(区、市)内外经济较发达地区接受职业教育。完善面向农民、农村转移劳动力、在职职工、失业人员、残疾人、退役士兵等接受职业教育和培训的资助补贴政策,积极推行以直补个人为主的支付办法。

第四,加强职业教育经费监管。一是推进信息公开。宏观层面,职业教育经费的分配、使用和管理要全面、及时、准确地公开,接受社会监督;微观层面,各类职业学校的财务预算、决算、重大支出项目都要逐步公开。二是开展绩效评价。将筹钱、花钱、管钱作为一个整体来考虑,坚持“用钱必问效,无效必问责”。三是探索和建立信用记录制度。对异常现象列入“异常名录”,将严重不良信用记录者列入“黑名单”。

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Annual Report on the employment rate of Vocational College graduates

年度报告:高职生毕业半年后就业率达九成

The National Higher Vocational Education Quality Annual Report was released in Beijing on 15 July, 2014. The Report shows that 90.9% of vocational college graduates in 2013 gained employed within six months of graduation. 67% of these graduates were employed in local regions. These graduates are receiving an average monthly income of 2,940 yuan, six months after graduating. This represents a 7.7% increase on 2012. Graduates’ average income then doubles 3 years after graduation. The Report shows that the proportion of self-employed vocational college graduates reached 3.3% in 2013. This represents a 50 percent increase from 2011.

 “2014中国高等职业教育质量年度报告”15日在北京发布。报告显示,2013届高等职业学校毕业生半年后的就业率为90.9%,其中,中西部地区毕业生本地生源在本地就业的比例达到67%。2013届高职毕业生半年后月收入为2940元,分别比2012届、2011届毕业生增长7.7%、18.5%,毕业生3年后收入翻番,增速高于城镇单位在岗职工的平均水平。

报告显示,2011届至2013届高等职业学校毕业生的自主创业比例上升50%,2013届高职毕业生毕业自主创业比例为3.3%。调查发现,高职生毕业时自主创业的主要动机是为抓住机遇,而不是因为就业困难,其中机会型创业占毕业生创业的比例为85%,生存型创业的比例只有7%。

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Jinan province pilots "3+4" model to train Junior High School students to become early childhood teachers

 济南试点“3+4”幼师培养 培养初中起点本科幼师

Qilu Normal College has agreed to pilot a seven year (3+4) program to train 200 kindergarten teachers in cooperation with Jinan Kindergarten Teachers College.

The "3 +4" model will comprise 2 stages. The first stage will involve students spending three years at Jinan Kindergarten Teachers College. The second will involve students spending four years at Qilu Normal College. After completion of the first 3 years, students who pass the assessment will attend a college entrance examination. Students who pass the exam will undertake an additional 4 year undergraduate-level course. Upon completion, successful students will be awarded a bachelor degree from Qilu Normal College.

近日从济南市幼儿师范高等专科学校召开的招生工作会上获悉,齐鲁师范学院与该校将在去年试点初中起点六年制本科层次(“2+4”)学前教育教师的基础上,今年合作开展初中起点七年制本科层次(“3+4”)学前教育教师培养试点,计划招生200人。

据介绍,济南“3+4”幼儿教师将实行分段培养,前3年以济南幼儿师范高等专科学校培养为主,后4年以齐鲁师范学院培养为主。前3年期满经学校测试合格,参加当年春季高考,由山东省教育招生考试院确定分数线录取,被录取者升入本科层次学习4年。修业期满成绩合格者,由齐鲁师范学院颁发普通高等教育本科学历证书,符合条件者由齐鲁师范学院授予学士学位。未被录取的将进入济南幼儿师范高等专科学校专科层次,继续学习3年。

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